Committee Membership Information

Study Title:

Review of the US Antarctic Program: Future Science Opportunities in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean

Primary Board:

Study Director:

Dr. Warren M. Zapol - (Chair)
Massachusetts General Hospital

Warren M. Zapol (CHAIR) MD, (IOM) is the emeritus Anesthetist-in-Chief at Massachusetts General Hospital and the Reginald Jenney Professor of Anaesthesia at Harvard Medical School. He is currently the Director of the MGH Anesthesia Center for Critical Care Research. A graduate of MIT and the University of Rochester School of Medicine, Dr. Zapol?s research efforts include studies of acute respiratory failure in animals and humans. Supported by the National Science Foundation, he has led nine Antarctic expeditions to study the diving mechanisms and adaptations of the Weddell seal. Through that research his team learned how marine mammals avoid the bends and hypoxia (low blood oxygen levels during prolonged free diving). In 2003, he was awarded the Intellectual Property Owners Association?s Inventor of the Year Award for the treatment of hypoxic human newborns with inhaled nitric oxide, a technique now used to save the lives of ten thousand babies each year in the USA that he pioneered with his MGH team. In 2006, a steep mountain glacier in Antarctica was named for Dr. Zapol by the United States Board on Geographic Names. In 2008, he was appointed by President George W. Bush as an academic representative to the U.S. Arctic Research Commission.

Dr. John E. Carlstrom
The University of Chicago

John E. Carlstrom (NAS) is the Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Distinguished Service Professor at The University of Chicago with the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physic, the Astronomy & Astrophysics and Physics Departments, and the Enrico Fermi Institute. He holds a joint position with the High Energy Physics Division at Argonne National Laboratory. He is a former director of the Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica (CARA - a NSF Science and Technology Center headquartered at The University of Chicago) and of the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at The University of Chicago. In addition, Dr. Carlstrom leads the 10 meter South Pole Submillimeter Telescope project. Dr. Carlstrom is regarded by his peers as a leading experimentalist in the field of cosmology through precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation. His Degree Angular Scale Interferometer in Antarctica revealed the microwave background's long-sought polarization. He has also led efforts to study imprints in the microwave background created by massive clusters of galaxies, and has done pioneering research on young solar systems. He is involved with the Combined Array for Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) and the Dark Energy Survey. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and he received a MacArthur Fellowship in 1998. He has received NASA's Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement. Dr. Carlstrom is renowned as a enthusiastic promoter of science which, combined with his youth and energy, make him an excellent prospect for developing the main messages of the committee?s report and advocating the survey throughout the decade. Dr. Carlstrom has served on numerous NRC committees including the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Radio Science, the Committee to Review the Science Requirements for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), and the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA). He is a former member of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC) that advises NSF, NASA, and DOE on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics. He was a member of the Panel on Radio and Submillimeter-wave Astronomy of the McKee/Taylor survey, the NSF Senior Review of the Division of Astronomical Sciences, and the committee for the 2010 Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Dr. Carlstrom received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1988.

Dr. Sarah B. Das
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Sarah B. Das is an Associate Scientist in the Geology and Geophysics Department at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Dr. Das received her Ph.D. in Geosciences from Pennsylvania State University in 2003. Her research interests are in the reconstruction of paleoclimates from ice-cores; Holocene climate variability; the deglaciation of the West Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets; controls on ice sheet surface melting, mass balance and ice dynamics; the role of the Greenland Ice Sheet and West Antarctic Ice Sheet in sea level rise; and the development of remote sensing and field methods to investigate ice sheet processes and recent change.

Dr. Hugh W. Ducklow
Marine Biological Laboratory

Hugh W. Ducklow is the Director of the Ecosystems Center at the Marine Biological Laboratory. Dr. Ducklow is a biological oceanographer and has been studying the dynamics of plankton foodwebs in estuaries, the coastal ocean and the open sea since 1980. He and his students have worked principally on microbial foodwebs and the role of heterotrophic bacteria in the marine carbon cycle. Dr. Ducklow has participated in oceanographic cruises in Chesapeake Bay, the western North Atlantic Ocean, the Bermuda and Hawaii Time Series stations, the Black Sea, the Arabian Sea, the Ross Sea, the Southern Ocean, the Equatorial Pacific and the Great Barrier Reef. Much of the work was done in the decade-long Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), which he led in the late 1990s. He has been working on various projects in Antarctica since 1994. Currently, Dr. Ducklow leads the Palmer Antarctica Long Term Ecological Research Project on the west Antarctic Peninsula, where he is investigating the responses of the marine ecosystem to rapid climate warming. Although his research is primarily experimental and observational, he utilizes mathematical models and collaborates with modelers to gain deeper understanding and derive maximum benefit from the data we collect. Dr. Ducklow received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1977.

Dr. Marilyn Raphael
University of California, Los Angeles

Marilyn Raphael is a Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her research interests include: The Santa Ana Winds of California, Global Climate Change and Variability, Climate Modeling, Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics, Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation and Climate, and Antarctic Sea Ice Variability. Dr. Raphael received her Ph.D. in Geography from The Ohio State University in 1990.

Dr. David H. Bromwich
The Ohio State University

David H. Bromwich is a Senior Research Scientist and Director of the Polar Meteorology Group at the Byrd Polar Research Center of Ohio State University. He is also a Professor with the Atmospheric Sciences Program of the Department of Geography. Dr. Bromwich's research interests include: the climatic impacts of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets; global and mesoscale model simulations of the polar regions; the precipitation behavior of high southern latitudes, Greenland, and the Arctic basin; and the influence of tropical ocean-atmosphere variability on the polar regions. He has served on the National Research Council's Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data and was previously a U.S. Representative of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Dr. Bromwich chaired National Research Council'sCommittee on the Design of the Martha Muse Award to Support the Advancement of Antarctic Researchers. He is a member of the American MeteorologicalSociety, the American Geophysical Union, the Royal Meteorological Society, andthe Association of American Geographers. Dr. Bromwich earned his Ph.D. in meteorology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1979.

Dr. Rita R. Colwell
University of Maryland, College Park

Rita Colwell (NAS) is Distinguished University Professor both at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health and is Senior Advisor and Chairman Emeritus, Canon US Life Sciences, Inc.; President and CEO of CosmosID, Inc.; and former Director of the National Science Foundation (1998-2004). Her interests are focused on global infectious diseases, water, and health, and she has developed an international network that addresses emerging infectious diseases and water issues, including safe drinking water for both the developed and developing world. Before going to NSF, Dr. Colwell was President of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and Professor of Microbiology and Biotechnology at the University Maryland. She was also a member of the National Science Board from 1984 to 1990. Dr. Colwell has previously served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the American Academy of Microbiology and also as President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Washington Academy of Sciences, the American Society for Microbiology, the Sigma Xi National Science Honorary Society, the International Union of Microbiological Societies, and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Dr. Colwell has authored or co-authored 17 books and more than 750 scientific publications. She produced the award-winning film, Invisible Seas, and has served on editorial boards of numerous scientific journals. Dr. Colwell has also been awarded 55 honorary degrees from institutions of higher education, including her Alma Mater, Purdue University, and is the recipient of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star, bestowed by the Emperor of Japan, the 2006 National Medal of Science awarded by the President of the United States, and the 2010 Stockholm Water Prize awarded by the King of Sweden. A geological site in Antarctica, Colwell Massif, has been named in recognition of her work in the polar regions. Dr. Colwell holds a Ph.D. in Oceanography from the University of Washington.

Dr. Diana Harrison Wall
Colorado State University

Diana H. Wall is a University Distinguished Professor, Professor of Biology, and Director, School of Global Environmental Sustainability at Colorado State University. She is actively engaged in research to explore how soil biodiversity contributes to healthy, productive soils and thus to society, and the consequences of human activities on soil sustainability. She has conducted more than twenty years of research in the Antarctic Dry Valleys examining the response of soil biodiversity and ecosystem processes to environmental change. Wall Valley, Antarctica was named for her achievements in 2005. Diana holds an Honorary Doctorate from Utrecht University, the Netherlands and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She is a member of the US Commission of UNESCO, a member of the US Standing Committee on Life Sciences for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research; chaired the SCOPE Committee on Soil and Sediment Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning and co-chaired the Millennium Development Goals Committee of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Diana was President of the Ecological Society of America, the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the Intersociety Consortium for Plant Protection, Association of Ecosystem Research Centers, the Society of Nematologists and Chair, Council of Scientific Society Presidents.

Dr. Thomas F. Budinger
E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Thomas F. Budinger (NAE/IOM) is Professor of the Graduate School at University of California, Berkeley; Senior Medical Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and Professor Emeritus at University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco Medical Center. He was the founding Chair of the Department of Bioengineering at Univ. of Calif. Berkeley. He is currently Home Secretary of the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Budinger graduated magna cum laude in chemistry from Regis College, and received the M.S. degree in physical oceanography from the University of Washington. He subsequently received an M.D. in medicine from the University of Colorado and a Ph.D. degree in medical physics from the University of California, Berkeley. He served as a U.S. Coast Guard Officer in the Arctic and Antarctic and was the Science Officer for the International Ice Patrol (1957-1960). Dr. Budinger has authored papers on specific research topics including Columbia River dispersion in the N. Pacific Ocean, iceberg detection by radar, bioastronautics, space radiation, imaging instrumentation (MRI, PET, SPECT) and reconstruction tomography mathematics. Medical science contributions are for research on aging and heart disease. He has served NRC study topics ranging from imaging to radiation and warfighter protection. He is co-author of the text, ?Ethics of Emerging Technologies: Scientific Facts and Moral Challenges.? Recent awards include the Gold Medal from the American Roentgen Ray Society in 2009 and the Hal Anger Memorial Lectureship from the Society of Nuclear Medicine in 2010.

Dr. Ramon E. Lopez
The University of Texas at Arlington

Ramon E. Lopez is currently a Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Texas at Arlington. Dr. Lopez is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, was awarded the 2002 Nicholson Medal for Humanitarian Service, and was named the 2010 Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) Distinguished Scientist. He received his B.S. in Physics in 1980 from the University of Illinois, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Space Physics in 1984 and 1986, respectively, from Rice University. His current research focuses on solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, magnetospheric storms and substorms, and space weather prediction. Dr. Lopez leads a research group that is working in both space physics and science education. Dr. Lopez is active in science education at a number of levels. Dr. Lopez has served as a consultant for a number of school districts around the country, as well as other organizations. He worked very closely with Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Maryland to help implement a hands-on science program in elementary and middle grades. He is the Co-Director for Diversity for the Center for Integrated Space weather Modeling (CISM), a Science and Technology Center funded by the National Science Foundation. In 2003, he was elected Vice Chair of the APS Forum on Education and served as Chair in 2005. Dr. Lopez has also served on various education-related committees of the AGU (American Geophysical Union), and as a member of the Board of Directors of SACNAS. In the fall of 2003, he was co-Organizer of the Introductory Calculus-Based Physics Course Conference, sponsored by the American Association of Physics Teachers. Dr. Lopez is also the co-author of a popular book on space weather entitled "Storms from the Sun," published by Joseph Henry Press, the tradebook arm of the National Academy Press.

Dr. Robin E. Bell
Columbia University

Robin E. Bell is the PGI Senior Research Professor at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, where she directs polar research, education and technology development programs. Dr. Bell is a Geophysicist who earned her Ph.D. in 1989 from Columbia University. Her research interests are target understanding complex earth?s physical processes at the poles. Her interests range from ice sheet dynamics continental tectonics and mass balance to subglacial ecosystems. She has studied the mechanisms of ice sheet collapse and the chilly environments beneath the Antarctic ice sheet, including Lake Vostok. Bell Discovered major sub-glacial lakes linked to the onset of fast flow in Anattctica and has advanced the concept of geologic control on ice stream dynamics. Bell was the Director of the ADVANCE program Columbia?s Earth Institute that increased the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers at the university through institutional transformation. She has also led nine major aero-geophysical expeditions to Antarctica and Greenland including the major IPY geophysical program to explore the interior of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. She was instrumental in the development of the International Polar Year 2007-8. Moving the concept forward nationally and internationally she served as the Chair of the Polar Research Board during the planning phase, as Co-Chair of the ICSU International Polar Year Planning Group, and member of the ICSU-WMO IPY Joint Committee. In addition, she also served as one of the U.S. representatives to the Standing Scientific Committee on Geosciences of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR).

Dr. Stanley B. Prusiner
University of California, San Francisco

Stanley B. Prusiner, MD (NAS/IOM) is Director of the Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Professor of Neurology at the University of California, San Francisco, where he has worked since 1972. He received his undergraduate and medical training at the University of Pennsylvania and his postgraduate clinical training at UCSF. From 1969-72, he served in the U.S. Public Health Service at the National Institutes of Health. Editor of 12 books and author of over 350 research articles, Dr. Prusiner's contributions to scientific research are internationally recognized. Dr. Prusiner is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society, and a foreign member of the Royal Society, London. He is the recipient of numerous prizes, including the Potamkin Prize for Alzheimer's Disease Research from the American Academy of Neurology (1991); the Richard Lounsbery Award for Extraordinary Scientific Research in Biology and Medicine from the National Academy of Sciences (1993); the Gairdner Foundation International Award (1993); the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research (1994); the Paul Ehrlich Prize from the Federal Republic of Germany (1995); the Wolf Prize in Medicine from the State of Israel (1996); the Keio International Award for Medical Science (1996); the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University (1997); the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1997); and the National Medal of Science (2010).

Dr. Lynne D. Talley
Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Lynne D. Talley is a Professor of Oceanography at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Talley's expertise and research interests lie in general ocean circulation, hydrography, theory of wind-driven circulation, and ocean modeling. Dr. Talley has an extensive NRC committee background, having served previously on the Climate Research Committee, Global-Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Panel, and Panel to Review the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). She is a member of the American Geophysical Union, American Meteorological Society, and Oceanography Society. Dr. Talley was a National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator in 1987. Dr. Talley received her Ph.D. in Physical Oceanography from the WHOI/MIT Joint Program in Oceanography in 1982. She is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, American Meteorological Society, and Oceanography Society.

Dr. Olav Orheim
Research Council of Norway

Olav Orheim is currently in charge of Norway?s International Polar Year effort based at the Research Council of Norway. He was employed at the Norwegian Polar Institute from 1972 to 2005?from 1993 as Managing Director. From 1989-2005 he was also Adjunct Professor at University of Bergen, teaching glaciology. Dr. Orheim received his Ph.D. in 1972 from Ohio State University where he studied Antarctic glaciers and global climate change. He has had more than 30 field seasons in the Arctic and the Antarctic, and produced about 80 research publications covering glacier mass balance and climate, ice dynamics, icebergs, remote sensing, and politics of the polar regions. He has written one book on glaciers and climate, and several book chapters, mostly on Antarctic politics and on polar history. He has been in the leadership of practically all international polar organizations. In 2003 he was Chair of the Norwegian Government?s most recent review of Northern Policy. For a decade he has chaired various bodies under the Antarctic Treaty system, including the Legal and Institutional Working Group from 2005 to 2009. He has developed two much-visited Norwegian museums on glaciers and on polar regions. He is at present Chairman of Board of five Norwegian entities, including the foundations Norwegian Glacier Museum in Sogn, the UNEP body GRID-A in Arendal, and the Polarship Fram, Oslo. He was in 2007 knighted under the Royal Norwegian Order of St Olav.

Dr. Peter Schlosser
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University

Peter Schlosser is the Vinton Professor of Earth and Environmental Engineering and Professor of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University and Senior Research Scientist at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. He also is the Associate Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University. He received his Ph.D. in Physics at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, in 1985. Dr. Schlosser?s research interests include studies of water movement and its variability in natural systems (oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater) using natural and anthropogenic trace substances and isotopes as ?dyes? or as ?radioactive clocks?; ocean/atmosphere gas exchange; reconstruction of continental paleotemperature records using groundwater as an archive; and anthropogenic impacts on natural systems. He participated in seven major ocean expeditions, five to the polar regions. He was or presently is a member or chair of national and international science steering committees, including the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, the Climate Variability and Predictability Experiment, the World Climate Research Program, the Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study, and the Study of Environmental Arctic Change.

Dr. John L. King
University of Michigan

John L. King is Vice Provost for Strategy and W.W. Bishop Professor in the School of Information at the University of Michigan. In January of 2000, Dr. King moved to the University of Michigan from the University of California at Irvine to be Dean of the School of Information. He moved to the University of Michigan Provost's Office in June of 2006 to be Vice Provost for Academic Information, working with the university's IT infrastructure at all levels, as well as the university libraries and other knowledge assets. Dr. King became Vice Provost for Strategy in 2009, working on new directions for the University of Michigan. Dr. King spent four months in Germany in spring/summer of 2005 at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main, as Fulbright Distinguished Chair in American Studies. This visit was supported by the German Fulbright Commission as well as the university. He was hosted by the Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften (the faculty of economics and business) and the Institut fur Wirtschafts Informatik (institute for information systems). Dr. King was elected a Fellow of the Association for Information Systems (AIS) in late 2005 and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2007. He received an honorary doctorate in economics and business from the Copenhagen Business School in 2009. Dr. King received his Ph.D. in Administration from the University of California at Irvine in 1977. His current research studies the relationship between technical change and social change, concentrating on information technologies and change in social institutions.

Dr. Peter Huybers
Harvard University

Peter Huybers is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University. Dr. Huybers received a B.S. in Physics in 1996 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, and a Ph.D. in Climate Chemistry and Physics from the MIT in 2004. He was a NOAA Postdoctoral Fellow in Climate and Global Change in the Geology and Geophysics Department at WHOI from 2004-2006. Dr. Huybers has multiple research interests related to climate science: long-term climate cycles, annual temperature variations, and models to estimate historic temperatures based on the limited evidence available. Dr. Huybers has been published in Science, Nature, Geophysical Research Letters, Quaternary Science Reviews, Paleoceanography, and the Journal of Physical Oceanography. He is the recipient of multiple awards, including a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in 2009, a Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering in 2009, the AGU James B. Macelwane Medal in 2009, a Harvard University Center for the Environment Fellowship in 2005, the MIT Carl-Gustaf Rossby Prize in 2004, and a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship in 2001.