What's New @ ILAR e-Newsletter -- Spring 2014
ILAR Roundtable on Science and Welfare in Laboratory Animal Use - First Workshop Held and Second Workshop Scheduled
The ILAR Roundtable held our first workshop, Reproducibility Issues in Research with Animals and Animal Models in Washington, DC on June 4-5. The inaugural workshop was well attended by leaders in academia, industry, and the non-profit arena who are concerned with the welfare and use of laboratory animals in scientific research. The presentations of all speakers, as well as a video and audio recording of the event, are located here: http://nas-sites.org/ilar-roundtable/roundtable-activities/reproducibility/webcast/
Mark your calendars for our second workshop on the transportation of laboratory animals, which will be held on September 3-4 in Washington, DC. Information is provided here, and will be updated in the coming weeks with methods by which to register to attend the event in person or via webcast: http://nas-sites.org/ilar-roundtable/roundtable-activities/transportation/
Recent Issues of the ILAR Journal
Volume 55, Issue 1
Naturally Occurring Diseases in Animals: Contributions to Translational Medicine
Scientific Editor: Michael D. Lairmore and Chand Khanna
This issue of the ILAR Journal brings together a number of reviews that show how naturally occurring or spontaneous diseases of animals provide scientific researchers with means to gain important and fundamental knowledge of human disease for translational medicine. These articles are written in the context of lessons learned about disease processes and translating this knowledge to the treatment of human disease. Among these articles are well-documented examples of animal diseases with causes ranging from genetic to infectious. Importantly, these natural animal models provide insight into the pathogenesis of human maladies and offer unique perspectives on how this information can be applied to intervention strategies in people.
- Naturally Occurring Diseases in Animals: Contributions to Translational Medicine
- Lamb Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Lung Disease: Insights to Pathogenesis and Novel Treatments
- Naturally Occurring Cancers in Dogs: Insights for Translational Genetics and Medicine
- Bartonellosis: One Health Perspectives for an Emerging Infectious Disease
- Domestic Dogs and Cancer Research: A Breed-Based Genomics Approach
- Canine Osteosarcoma: A Naturally Occurring Disease to Inform Pediatric Oncology
- Achilles Tendon Injuries in Elite Athletes: Lessons in Pathophysiology from Their Equine Counterparts
- Uninary Bladder Cancer in Dogs, a Naturally Occurring Model for Cancer Biology and Drug Development
- Pharmacologic Management of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Target Identification and Preclinical Trials
- Naturally Occurring Spinal Hyperostosis in Dogs as a Model for Human Spinal Disorders
- Cancer and Comparative Imaging
- Developing T Cell Cancer Immunotherapy in the Dog with Lymphoma
- Canine Epilepsy: An Underutilized Model
- Naturally Occurring Animal Models of Human Hepatitis E Virus Infection
- Issues Related to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees and Clinical Trials Using Privately Owned Animals
Volume 54, Issue 3
Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy
Scientific Editor:Joanna Brell
This issue of the ILAR Journal explores research on peripheral neuropathy (PN) and how animal models are assisting in investigating this pervasive condition. Peripheral neuropathy manifests in a variety of symptoms and as such, a major challenge in using animal models to study peripheral neuropathy is their inability to communicate exactly what their symptoms feel like. But, due to the varied expression of peripheral neuropathy, animal models may also present the best avenue with which to investigate the condition. This issue's papers depict the best use of a variety of animal models in researching a variety of manifestations of this condition, including PN due to diabetes mellitus, autoimmune disease, HIV, leprosy and other external conditions. A paper clarifies the monitoring of laboratory animal welfare and another brings in NIH standards for the use and care of animal model research.
- Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy: Modeling What We Feel, Understanding What They Feel
- Mouse Models of Diabetic Neuropathy
- Rodent Models of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy
- Animal Models of Autoimmune Neuropathy
- Drosophilia Models of Neuronal Injury
- Unraveling the Pathogensis of HIV Peripheral Neuropathy: Insights from a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Macaque Model
- The Armadillo as a Model for Peripheral Neuropathy in Leprosy
- Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy Due to Environmental Toxicants
- What Investigators Need to Know About the Use of Animals
- Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Considerations for Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy
Volume 54, Issue 2
Progress in Genetics and Genomics of Nonhuman Primates
Scientific Editor: John D. Harding
The papers in this issue of the ILAR Journal discuss the current understanding of the genetics and genomics of apes (particularly the chimpanzee), and old world monkeys, such as macaques, baboons, and vervets. These species provide highly relevant models for many aspects of human physiology, behavior, and disease. They also enhance the understanding of evolutionary biology and have been used widely for many aspects of discovery science. As directly related to translational research, monkeys, in particular, are used extensively to test the efficacy of vaccines, therapies for human disease, and for examining the toxicity of drug candidates. Classic examples of the importance of nonhuman primates (NHPs) used for translational research are the development of vaccines for polio, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B. This issue looks into new technologies, particularly low-cost, high throughput sequencing of both genomic DNA and RNA that will provide vast amounts of new information on the genomes of many individual NHPs and gene expression patterns in multiple tissues from many animals. This information will provide new opportunities to make NHPs even more relevant to translational studies, but will also be a major challenge in terms of storage and interpretation. The field of NHP genetics and genomics is in a highly dynamic state, which is based on many past developments and the use of new high throughput technologies. In the next few years, the research community can expect further progress that should have a major impact on biomedical research.
- Progress in Genetics and Genomics of Nonhuman Primates
- Great Ape Genomics
- The Value of Extended Pedigrees for Next-Generation Analysis of Complex Disease in the Rhesus Macaque
- Baboons as a Model to Study Genetics and Epigenetics of Human Disease
- Systems Biology of the Vervet Monkey
- Improving Genome Assemblies and Annotations for Nonhuman Primates
- Nonhuman Primate Models in the Genomic Era: A Paradigm Shift
- Old World Monkeys and New Age Science: The Evolution of Nonhuman Primate Systems Virology
- The Essential Detail: The Genetics and Genomics of the Primate Immune Response
- Haplessly Hoping: Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex Made Easy
- Progress and Prospects for Genetic Modification of Nonhuman Primate Models in Biomedical Research
- In Transition: Primate Genomics at a time of Rapid Change
- IACUC Review of Nonhuman Primate Research
Volume 54, Issue 1
Ethical and IACUC Considerations for Field Biology Studies
Scientific Editors: Mark Wallace and Howard Curzer
Ecological research often involves studies of wild animals in the field to explore ecosystem function, autecology, or options for the management and long term survival of wildlife species or populations under growing human pressures. Although modeling approaches are sometimes helpful, field studies of animals are typically the only way to test hypotheses and develop realistic management strategies in disciplines such as ecology, wildlife management, and conservation biology. The Animal Welfare Act (AWA 1990), Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NIH 2002), and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC 2011) determine what practices are acceptable in laboratory animal research, but are almost completely silent about field research. Regulations developed for laboratory environments and domesticated taxa are increasingly extrapolated to the field, even though this extrapolation is typically inappropriate because of significant differences between laboratory research and field research on animals (Gannon et al. 2007).
This special issue includes papers by field biologists, veterinarians, social scientists, and philosophers who help explore the variety of ethical issues involved in ecological field research. It brings together diverse views about the ethical and welfare concerns involved in ecological field research and aims to expand investigators’, IACUCs’, and granting agencies’ understanding of the additional ethical considerations required when studying wild animals.
- Introduction: Moral Problems and Perspectives for Ecological Field Research
- Fundamental Differences between Wildlife and Biomedical Research
- Wildlife Researchers Running the Permit Maze
- Ethical Issues in African Great Ape Field Studies
- Falling through the Cracks: Shortcomings in the Collaboration between Biologists and Veterinarians and Their Consequences for Wildlife
- Ecological Ethics in Captivity: Balancing Values and Responsibilities in Zoo and Aquarium Research under Rapid Global Change
- The Ethics of Wildlife Research: A Nine R Theory
- Setting Up an Ethics of Ecosystem Research Structure Based on the Precautionary Principle
Future Issue Topics*
Vol 55(2): Behavioral Assessment in Animal Models: Relevance for Human Psychopathology
Vol 55(3): Experimental Design and Statistics in Laboratory Animal Research
Vol 56(1): The Microbiome: Modeling for Disease and Health
Vol 56(2): One Health: Livestock Models in Translational Science
Vol 56(3): Wildlife Diseases as Models for Research
* Topics and titles are subject to change
Subscription and Ordering Information
The ILAR Journal is now being published by the Oxford University Press. New subscriptions, renewals, and single issues and articles from past issues are all available at the Oxford University Press website.
This seventh update to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals integrates recently published data, scientific principles, and expert opinion to recommend practices for the humane care and use of animals in research, testing, and teaching. The Guide is an internationally accepted primary reference on animal care for the scientific community. Previous editions have served as the basis for accreditation of institutions worldwide by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International. Also, use of previous editions has been required for researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health who adhere to the Public Health Service policy. Additions to this eighth edition of the Guide include expanded coverage of the ethics of laboratory animal use; components of effective Animal Care and Use Programs; new guidelines for the housing, environment, and enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic animals; updated information on veterinary and clinical care, and discussion of animal biosecurity.
To identify and promote better understanding of the challenges of conducting animal research across country boundaries, the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) convened a workshop on Animal Research in a Global Environment: Meeting the Challenges, drawing on the expertise and perspectives of 200 participants from 17 countries. The public workshop featured invited presentations and discussions that focused on new information published since the last workshop in 2003, in part to inform the continuing development of guidelines (including an update of the 1996 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals).
In response to a request by the Department of Defense, this report addresses the challenges stemming from developing and testing medical countermeasures in animal models. The report makes the principal point that a comprehensive strategy to improve data gathering and data sharing from animal models (or their alternatives) would significantly increase the efficiency and productivity of research into countermeasures while improving the humane use of laboratory animals in accordance with the principles of the Three Rs.
This a short report aimed at editors of Journals that publish animal studies. The report outlines the information that should be included in scientific papers regarding such studies to ensure that the studies can be replicated. Necessary information includes conditions of housing and husbandry, genetic nomenclature, microbial status, detailed experimental manipulations, and handling and use of pharmaceuticals.
Animals are widely use in neuroscience research to explore biological mechanisms of nervous system function, to identify the genetic basis of disease states, and to provide models of human disorders and diseases for the development of new treatments. To ensure the humane care and use of animals, numerous laws, policies, and regulations are in place governing the use of animals in research, and certain animal regulations have implications specific to neuroscience research. This report summarizes the workshop “U.S. and European Animal Research Regulations” convened by the Institute of Medicine Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders, in collaboration with the National Research Council Committee on Science, Technology, and Law, and the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, held in the UK on July 26-27, 2011.
Did you know that ILAR project information is available online?
The National Academies announces meetings that are open to the public via the Current Projects System (CPS) at least 10 days before the event.
To learn more, visit the Current Projects System FAQ.
The International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) recently released guidelines for researchers, as well as editors and reviewers of scientific journals, regarding the ethics of using animal models in research.
You can access both sets of guidelines at the ICLAS website.
CALENDARS, MEETINGS, AND WORKSHOPS
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AALAS Meetings and Events Calendar
Charles River Courses and Seminars (U.S.)
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OLAW IACUC Staff Outreach Seminar Schedule
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